Presentational. In addition to marking up lower level elements with punctuation, authors mark up the higher level entities in a variety of ways to make the presentation clearer. Such markup –presentational markup– includes horizontal and vertical spacing, folios, page breaks, enumeration of lists and notes, and a host of ad hoc symbols and devices. For example, an author marks the beginning of a paragraph by leaving some vertical space and perhaps horizontal space as well. Occasionally, authors even number their paragraphs. Similarly, chapters often begin on new pages, may be enumerated in a variety of styles, and may even be explicitly labeled ‘Chapter’.